• bitcoinBitcoin (BTC) $ 69,634.00
  • ethereumEthereum (ETH) $ 3,731.35
  • tetherTether (USDT) $ 0.998739
  • bnbBNB (BNB) $ 614.03
  • solanaSolana (SOL) $ 176.88
  • staked-etherLido Staked Ether (STETH) $ 3,730.20
  • usd-coinUSDC (USDC) $ 0.999922
  • xrpXRP (XRP) $ 0.542577
  • dogecoinDogecoin (DOGE) $ 0.168497
  • the-open-networkToncoin (TON) $ 6.40
  • cardanoCardano (ADA) $ 0.501999
  • avalanche-2Avalanche (AVAX) $ 41.13
  • shiba-inuShiba Inu (SHIB) $ 0.000026
  • tronTRON (TRX) $ 0.123430
  • wrapped-bitcoinWrapped Bitcoin (WBTC) $ 69,586.00
  • polkadotPolkadot (DOT) $ 7.61
  • bitcoin-cashBitcoin Cash (BCH) $ 517.70
  • chainlinkChainlink (LINK) $ 16.75
  • nearNEAR Protocol (NEAR) $ 7.83
  • uniswapUniswap (UNI) $ 9.34
  • matic-networkPolygon (MATIC) $ 0.733856
  • litecoinLitecoin (LTC) $ 88.66
  • internet-computerInternet Computer (ICP) $ 13.62
  • fetch-aiFetch.ai (FET) $ 2.48
  • leo-tokenLEO Token (LEO) $ 6.00
  • daiDai (DAI) $ 0.998776
  • pepePepe (PEPE) $ 0.000013
  • ethereum-classicEthereum Classic (ETC) $ 31.52
  • wrapped-eethWrapped eETH (WEETH) $ 3,875.68
  • render-tokenRender (RNDR) $ 10.97
  • hedera-hashgraphHedera (HBAR) $ 0.115534
  • aptosAptos (APT) $ 9.26
  • immutable-xImmutable (IMX) $ 2.51
  • renzo-restaked-ethRenzo Restaked ETH (EZETH) $ 3,671.30
  • filecoinFilecoin (FIL) $ 6.23
  • cosmosCosmos Hub (ATOM) $ 8.86
  • first-digital-usdFirst Digital USD (FDUSD) $ 0.997302
  • mantleMantle (MNT) $ 1.04
  • crypto-com-chainCronos (CRO) $ 0.125485
  • stellarStellar (XLM) $ 0.112971
  • the-graphThe Graph (GRT) $ 0.341341
  • blockstackStacks (STX) $ 2.19
  • arbitrumArbitrum (ARB) $ 1.19
  • kaspaKaspa (KAS) $ 0.131730
  • optimismOptimism (OP) $ 2.84
  • okbOKB (OKB) $ 51.32
  • arweaveArweave (AR) $ 44.37
  • bittensorBittensor (TAO) $ 424.36
  • makerMaker (MKR) $ 3,060.76
  • dogwifcoindogwifhat (WIF) $ 2.72
  • suiSui (SUI) $ 1.14
  • vechainVeChain (VET) $ 0.036520
  • injective-protocolInjective (INJ) $ 27.96
  • fantomFantom (FTM) $ 0.906646
  • ethena-usdeEthena USDe (USDE) $ 1.00
  • theta-tokenTheta Network (THETA) $ 2.53
  • moneroMonero (XMR) $ 135.39
  • thorchainTHORChain (RUNE) $ 6.73
  • flokiFLOKI (FLOKI) $ 0.000220
  • rocket-pool-ethRocket Pool ETH (RETH) $ 4,135.09
  • bonkBonk (BONK) $ 0.000031
  • lido-daoLido DAO (LDO) $ 2.21
  • celestiaCelestia (TIA) $ 9.74
  • mantle-staked-etherMantle Staked Ether (METH) $ 3,849.96
  • galaGALA (GALA) $ 0.043431
  • sei-networkSei (SEI) $ 0.571844
  • pyth-networkPyth Network (PYTH) $ 0.456339
  • coredaoorgCore (CORE) $ 1.82
  • jupiter-exchange-solanaJupiter (JUP) $ 1.19
  • bitget-tokenBitget Token (BGB) $ 1.13
  • algorandAlgorand (ALGO) $ 0.189129
  • flowFlow (FLOW) $ 0.968830
  • whitebitWhiteBIT Coin (WBT) $ 10.03
  • aaveAave (AAVE) $ 97.27
  • quant-networkQuant (QNT) $ 98.83
  • beam-2Beam (BEAM) $ 0.028200
  • starknetStarknet (STRK) $ 1.23
  • bitcoin-svBitcoin SV (BSV) $ 70.40
  • akash-networkAkash Network (AKT) $ 5.82
  • ondo-financeOndo (ONDO) $ 0.933281
  • singularitynetSingularityNET (AGIX) $ 1.04
  • ethenaEthena (ENA) $ 0.877523
  • bittorrentBitTorrent (BTT) $ 0.000001
  • dydx-chaindYdX (DYDX) $ 2.14
  • flare-networksFlare (FLR) $ 0.028503
  • tokenize-xchangeTokenize Xchange (TKX) $ 14.50
  • cheeleeCheelee (CHEEL) $ 20.29
  • axie-infinityAxie Infinity (AXS) $ 7.93
  • neoNEO (NEO) $ 15.99
  • elrond-erd-2MultiversX (EGLD) $ 41.63
  • chilizChiliz (CHZ) $ 0.125196
  • worldcoin-wldWorldcoin (WLD) $ 5.04
  • msolMarinade Staked SOL (MSOL) $ 210.87
  • gatechain-tokenGate (GT) $ 8.19
  • the-sandboxThe Sandbox (SAND) $ 0.469889
  • ecasheCash (XEC) $ 0.000053
  • wormholeWormhole (W) $ 0.574922
  • zebec-protocolZebec Protocol (ZBC) $ 0.020140
  • eosEOS (EOS) $ 0.873500
  • roninRonin (RON) $ 3.06
  • jasmycoinJasmyCoin (JASMY) $ 0.020431
  • tezosTezos (XTZ) $ 0.999440
  • pendlePendle (PENDLE) $ 6.37
  • kucoin-sharesKuCoin (KCS) $ 10.22
  • conflux-tokenConflux (CFX) $ 0.239995
  • havvenSynthetix Network (SNX) $ 2.95
  • safeSafe (SAFE) $ 2.25
  • kelp-dao-restaked-ethKelp DAO Restaked ETH (RSETH) $ 3,764.51
  • ether-fi-staked-ethether.fi Staked ETH (EETH) $ 3,729.66
  • mina-protocolMina Protocol (MINA) $ 0.839930
  • aioz-networkAIOZ Network (AIOZ) $ 0.842018
  • ordinalsORDI (ORDI) $ 43.02
  • gnosisGnosis (GNO) $ 346.15
  • decentralandDecentraland (MANA) $ 0.469458
  • ribbon-financeRibbon Finance (RBN) $ 0.898498
  • book-of-memeBOOK OF MEME (BOME) $ 0.012246
  • heliumHelium (HNT) $ 5.01
  • apecoinApeCoin (APE) $ 1.31
  • lido-staked-solLido Staked SOL (STSOL) $ 210.21
  • nexoNEXO (NEXO) $ 1.44
  • echelon-primeEchelon Prime (PRIME) $ 19.65
  • iotaIOTA (IOTA) $ 0.233773
  • nervos-networkNervos Network (CKB) $ 0.017117
  • kavaKava (KAVA) $ 0.698000
  • frax-etherFrax Ether (FRXETH) $ 3,734.22
  • pancakeswap-tokenPancakeSwap (CAKE) $ 2.86
  • usddUSDD (USDD) $ 0.997208
  • theta-fuelTheta Fuel (TFUEL) $ 0.109770
  • dexeDeXe (DEXE) $ 12.18
  • klay-tokenKlaytn (KLAY) $ 0.188633
  • swethSwell Ethereum (SWETH) $ 3,931.40
  • coinbase-wrapped-staked-ethCoinbase Wrapped Staked ETH (CBETH) $ 3,991.60
  • livepeerLivepeer (LPT) $ 21.11
  • ocean-protocolOcean Protocol (OCEAN) $ 1.04
  • blurBlur (BLUR) $ 0.416291
  • bitcoin-goldBitcoin Gold (BTG) $ 38.33
  • axelarAxelar (AXL) $ 1.00
  • ethereum-name-serviceEthereum Name Service (ENS) $ 21.14
  • sats-ordinalsSATS (Ordinals) (SATS) $ 0.00000031
  • fraxFrax (FRAX) $ 0.997261
  • terra-lunaTerra Luna Classic (LUNC) $ 0.000111
  • woo-networkWOO (WOO) $ 0.340302
  • oasis-networkOasis Network (ROSE) $ 0.092650
  • fasttokenFasttoken (FTN) $ 1.97
  • mantra-daoMANTRA (OM) $ 0.743406
  • illuviumIlluvium (ILV) $ 94.59
  • dydxdYdX (ETHDYDX) $ 2.14
  • tether-goldTether Gold (XAUT) $ 2,421.93
  • notcoinNotcoin (NOT) $ 0.005793
  • curve-dao-tokenCurve DAO (CRV) $ 0.486165
  • osmosisOsmosis (OSMO) $ 0.896177
  • pepecoin-2PepeCoin (PEPECOIN) $ 5.10
  • staked-frax-etherStaked Frax Ether (SFRXETH) $ 4,048.07
  • golemGolem (GLM) $ 0.566158
  • arkhamArkham (ARKM) $ 2.52
  • astarAstar (ASTR) $ 0.095270
  • xdce-crowd-saleXDC Network (XDC) $ 0.036146
  • wemix-tokenWEMIX (WEMIX) $ 1.49
  • enjincoinEnjin Coin (ENJ) $ 0.354669
  • aerodrome-financeAerodrome Finance (AERO) $ 1.14
  • jito-governance-tokenJito (JTO) $ 4.20
  • iotexIoTeX (IOTX) $ 0.054071
  • memecoin-2Memecoin (MEME) $ 0.027379
  • true-usdTrueUSD (TUSD) $ 0.998523
  • superfarmSuperVerse (SUPER) $ 1.12
  • raydiumRaydium (RAY) $ 1.92
  • 1inch1inch (1INCH) $ 0.432106
  • celoCelo (CELO) $ 0.911878
  • 0x0x Protocol (ZRX) $ 0.572344
  • ether-fiEther.fi (ETHFI) $ 4.21
  • apenftAPENFT (NFT) $ 0.00000049
  • dymensionDymension (DYM) $ 2.80
  • stader-ethxStader ETHx (ETHX) $ 3,836.96
  • skaleSKALE (SKL) $ 0.093652
  • radixRadix (XRD) $ 0.045444
  • ankrAnkr Network (ANKR) $ 0.046846
  • stepnGMT (GMT) $ 0.232063
  • trust-wallet-tokenTrust Wallet (TWT) $ 1.12
  • polymeshPolymesh (POLYX) $ 0.436463
  • mx-tokenMX (MX) $ 4.67
  • zilliqaZilliqa (ZIL) $ 0.024851
  • altlayerAltLayer (ALT) $ 0.335125
  • based-brettBrett (BRETT) $ 0.052988
  • reserve-rights-tokenReserve Rights (RSR) $ 0.009012
  • venomVenom (VENOM) $ 0.272202
  • compound-ethercETH (CETH) $ 74.96
  • metis-tokenMetis (METIS) $ 78.33
  • pax-goldPAX Gold (PAXG) $ 2,407.22
  • arcblockArcblock (ABT) $ 4.48
  • ravencoinRavencoin (RVN) $ 0.031603
  • zetachainZetaChain (ZETA) $ 1.64
  • nosanaNosana (NOS) $ 5.17
  • holotokenHolo (HOT) $ 0.002430
  • rocket-poolRocket Pool (RPL) $ 21.18
  • compound-governance-tokenCompound (COMP) $ 62.40
  • siacoinSiacoin (SC) $ 0.007447
  • project-galaxyGalxe (GAL) $ 3.69
  • terra-luna-2Terra (LUNA) $ 0.608830
  • biconomyBiconomy (BICO) $ 0.535069
  • qtumQtum (QTUM) $ 3.95

How major Bitcoin mining pools calculate pay-per-share

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How major Bitcoin mining pools calculate pay-per-share

Bitcoin mining pools are straightforward: complete your share of work to earn your share of the winnings. Roughly $10 billion in annual payouts to miners around the globe makes Bitcoin mining the highest stakes proof-of-work (PoW) competition in the world.

However, formulas for calculating payouts to pool participants vary widely. Since the birth of mining pools 13 years ago, pool operators have used dozens of methodologies to smooth out income or reduce the need for trust.

For example, how can a miner trust that their pool operator is honestly reporting the winnings of other workers and fairly distributing in-band and out-of-band transaction fees?

  • Users pay in-band transaction fees in bitcoin, on-chain. These fees are publicly verifiable.
  • In contrast, users pay out-of-band transaction fees in any denomination besides bitcoin. For example, mining pool ViaBTC accepts credit card payments for bitcoin transactions.
  • Similarly, Luxor mined TaprootWizards’ ‘Big Wizard’ 4MB block with a $0 on-chain transaction fee, mining the entire block for non-bitcoin, out-of-band fees.

Multiple payout types explained

The reason for multiple payout types is that there’s no singular consensus for the best type. Some pool operators assume more financial risks in order to smooth out the income for their participants. Others make participants assume more (or all) of the risk.

Bitcoin mining is a lottery, anyway. Only the winning guess among millions of cryptographic computations will produce a numerical hash for a block of data that satisfies Bitcoin’s difficulty threshold.

The only action that increases your odds of winning any fair lottery — such as Bitcoin mining — is to buy more tickets. Equally, the only thing that increases a miner’s odds of satisfying Bitcoin’s difficulty threshold is contributing more hashes than their competitors.

In the end, miners are free to choose which pools they contribute to in hashrate. Some miners choose conservative pools; others try their luck. The most risk-seeking miners skip pools altogether and ‘solo mine.’

Bitcoin mining protocol Stratum V2 opens for testing

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